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#Computer Internal components of computer system

How CPU Cooling Fan Works?

The CPU is a brain of all computer system, handling millions of calculations every second. All that computer power generates heat, though - is enough to disable delicate electronics. A CPU cooling fan is required to circulate that heat, and maintaining your computer's cooling system can extend their life and reduce the possibility of damage to critical business systems.

Convection

The Many thermodynamic works are behind CPU cooling is convection. A hot object transfers some heat to the air molecules near its surface, slightly cooling in the process. If the air is moving, these hot molecules will dissipate, allowing the cooler air to change and absorb more heat. Using a fan forces the air to move, provides a constant stream of cooler air to absorb heat from the object and greatly increases the rate of cooling.

Heat sinks

Just the flow of air from above the CPU will not be enough to cool it, due to the high temperature these can reach the chips. A heat sink is a block of aluminum or any other metal designed to conduct heat. The bottom of the heat sink is flat to allow maximum contact with the CPU, and the upper surface has several narrow wings with air channels between them. This greatly increases the surface area available for convection cooling, and can increase the amount of CPU fan heat as the wind blows through these channels.

Variable speed

The Most modern CPU fans have a variable speed control. Sensors in the motherboard monitor CPU temperature with the computer running, and direct the fan to accelerate or slow down in response to activity and load. Depending on the manufacturer of your CPU and the cooler, the fan may turn off during idle periods, rotating only in the face of intensive calculations. You should listen to your fan spin when running graphically intensive programs such as computer aided design tools or video rendering programs. If you are performing less intensive tasks such as spreadsheet calculation or word processing on a computer then listening to the CPU fan running at high speed, this could be a sign of a problem or rogue malware running on your system.

Cooling capacity

You can operate your CPU cooling fan at maximum efficiency by following a few steps. You should clean your fans and heat sinks so that a compressed air duster can be used to prevent buildup that can cause heat and damage to fan motors and bearings. Make sure that you turn off your computer and turn it off for a few minutes before leaving dust. You should try to ensure that the air flow through the computer cases is maximized so that the intake and vent remain clear and unstructured, and avoid cables tangles inside the case that can impede airflow. Spending a few minutes maintaining your CPU cooling system can mean the difference between extending the life of valuable company hardware and quickly replacing the burned system.

How CPU Works BUS in CPU


Definition


In the language of computing, a bus is a group of physical connections that consist of wires, circuits etc. This connects different hardware to complete communication.



The bus is used to reduce the number of pathways. With the help of these paths, computerization on the data channel is completed. Some times this or it is also  called " Data Highway ".





Bus diagram


                  If only two hardware communicates in a line, such a system is known in terms of hardware port

Features

Information for one-time transmission is present in the bus. This information exists in the form of bits that connect to the physical lines through which data is transferred. A 32-wired ribbon cable transfers 32 bits simultaneously. On the other hand "width" is used to indicate the number of bits transferred once by a bus.

The speed of a bus depends on its frequency and the data packets transferred per second. The data transfer of each bar is called a cycle.

The highest transfer speeds can be obtained from these routes. A bus with a width of 16 bits and a frequency of 133 MHz will have a transfer speed.

Architecture

In fact, a bus has 50 to 100 different physical lines which are further divided into three parts:

The address bus (also known as the memory bus name) forwards the memory address that is needed to read or write data to the processor.

The data bus transfers instructions to or coming from the processor.

The control bus or command bus synchronizes the signal by transferring the instructions. It goes from the signal control unit to the hardware component.

Main bus

A computer mainly consists of two buses:

Internal bus or front side bus is also called FSB in short. It simply connects the processor to the computer's central memory RAM or RAM.

Expansion bus or output bus are connected to the motherboard related components such as USB, serial and parallel ports, hard drives, CD-ROM CD-RW drives etc.

Chipset

Chipsets are used to connect computers and buses. With the help of this, the work of data transfer between the bus and the computer is completed. It is made up of many electronic chips. It mainly consists of two parts:

The first part is the NorthBridge (or memory controller) facilitates transfer between RAM (RAM) and processor. It is set near the processor. It is also known as GMCH or Graphic and Memory Controller Hub somewhere.

The second part SouthBridge (also known as input / output controller or expansion controller) establishes computerization between all peripheral devices. It is also called ICH or Controller Hub. In the computer language, mainly the component connecting the two bus is spoken.

System architecture of a PC


Computation of two buses will be completed only when the width (width) of both are the same. That's why RAM is installed in pairs (eg a Pentium chip has two 32-bit buses in a 64-bit processor).
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