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Generation of computer | First Generation of computer (1946 - 1954) |


Generation introduction of modern computers:-

Computer is one of the amazing inventions of recent times. Necessity is the mother of invention. Man any time want to do some counties or computing. Modern man can easily calculate or compute small numbers, but his need for data processing is so high that he needs a machine that can quickly process the data captured from the source and provide real-time feedback. Can do. Early tools such as abacus and slide rules may not keep pace with his needs. The progress of man from pebble to personal computer is a great march in the technical history of mankind.
The history of computers dates back to the age when humans started using tools for computation. The entire history of computing can be divided into two periods based on the technology used in computing devices such as the mechanical age and the electronic age.

Mechanical age:-

Probably the first computing device used by the Chinese in the fifth century was the abacus. It was used for systematic calculation of arithmetic operations.
German mathematician, g. W. In 1671 Leibitz invented a machine capable of performing all arithmetic operations.
In 1804, Joseph Marie Jacquard, a French inventor, designed a loom, which used perforated cards to direct the weaving pattern.
Charles Babbage designed several instruments, which he called analytical engines. In 1822, he designed a differential engine for calculating life tables (life expectancy figures) for the insurance business.
This work led to the development of the analytical engine, which he designed in 1833. This provided a foundation for modern computers.
At the end of the 19th century, Herman Hollerith and James Powers designed a data processing machine for processing United States census data. Hollerith has developed codes to process both alphabetical and numerical data by piercing cards and using devices to read such data into computer memory.
George Stibitz built the first automated computer in 1939 at Bell Telephone Laboratories in New York. Another major development was the construction of the MARK-I in the 1940s using an electro-magnetic relay.

Electronic age:-

In the late 1930s John v. Atansoff developed the first electronic computer using valves at Iowa State University. It was a small computer with an addition and subtraction unit and employed about 300 valves.

During in this period 1946–52, Mister John von Neumann and his all team developed a high-speed digital computer using vacuum tubes called LAS.
The transistor was invented in 1948 at AT & T's Bell Labs. Transistors began replacing vacuum tubes in computers in the 1950s.
The manufacture of integrated circuits was another major development by the late 1950s, and by the late 1960s integrated circuits replaced transistor circuits.

In order to simplify and provide a framework for the discussion of the development of the computer industry, it is customary to break it down into generations of development. Originally the term 'generation' was used to differentiate between changing hardware technologies. But since 1968, hardware and software advances have been considered in the classification of generations. These generations represent major advances in computing technology.

1. First Generation (1946 - 1954)
2. Second Generation (1955 - 1964)
3. Third Generation (1965 - 1974)
4. Fourth Generation (1975 - 1989)
5. Fifth Generation (after 1990)

                         कुछ और भी पढ़े             

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